Hindi Grammar (Vyakaran)
Sangya (Noun In Hindi Grammar)
A. TypesThese are of five types (similar to those in English language)--
- Vyakti vachak sangya (Proper Noun) - e.g. Delhi, Gandhi, Ramayan, Geetanjali, Himalaya, Tajmahal
- Jati vachak sangya (Common Noun) - e.g. more(peacock), pustak(book), mahila(lady), baalak(boy), baalika(girl)
- Bhav vachak sangya (Abstract Noun) - e.g. bachpan(childhood), satya(truth), sundarata(beauty), namrata(politeness)
- Samudaay vachak sangya (Collective Noun) - e.g. sena(armed forces), sabha(assembly), mandali(group)
- Dravya vachak sangya (Material Noun) - e.g. sona(gold), loha(iron), paani(water)
B. Sangya-Vikar (Declension of Nouns)Due to three reasons-- (i) Ling, (ii) Vachan, (iii) Karak
Ling (Gender) - In Hindi, there are only two types. These are
- Pull-ling (Masculine)
- Stri-ling (Feminine).
Vachan (Number) - These are of two types.
- Ek-vachan (Singular Number)
- Bahu-vachan (Plural Number)
Karak (Case) - These are of eight types.
- Karta (Nominative) - represented by Hindi word "ne"
- Karm (Objective, Accusative) - "ko"
- Karan (Instruments) - "se, ke dwara"
- Sampradan (Dative) - "ko, ke liye"
- Apadan (Ablative) - "se"
- Sambandh (Genetive, Possessive) - "ka, ki, ke"
- Adhikaran (Locative) - "me, par"
- Sambodhan (Vocative) - "Hey!, Arrey!"
Sarvnaam (Pronoun In Hindi Grammar)
Pronouns in Hindi language are of five types:
- Purush vachak sarvnaam (Personal pronoun) - These are of three kind :
- Uttam Purush (First Person) e.g. mae (I), hum(we), mera (my), humara (our)
- Madhyam Purush (Second Person) e.g. tum(you), tera(your)
- Anya Purush (Third person) e.g. vah (he), uska (his)
- Nischay vachak sarvnaam (Demonstrative pronoun) - Point to a definite person or object. e.g. yeh (this), veh (that), ye(these), ve (those)
- Anischay vachak sarvnaam (Indefinite pronoun) - Do not point to a definite person or object. e.g. koi (someone), kuchh (something)
- Sambandh vachak sarvnaam (Relative pronoun) - Relate one word to another. e.g. jo (who), jiski (whose), jaisa (like)
- Prashna vachak sarvnaam (Interrogative pronoun) - Used for interrogation. e.g. kaun (who), kya (what), kisko (whom)
B. Roop (Variations)
Similar to declension of nouns, a pronoun also has two Vachan; and eight Karak (case).
Visheshan (Adjective In Hindi Grammar)
These are of four types. The grammar tree is given below.
|Gun Vachak (Quality)||Sankhya Vachak (Numeral)||Pariman Vachak (Quantity)||Sanket Vachak (Demon strative)|
|1. Gun (good quality)|
2. Dosh (bad quality)
3. Rang (color)
4. Kal (tense)
5. Disha (direction)
6. Aakar (shape)
7. Dasha (condition)
8. Sthan (place)
|1. Nishchit visheshan (definite) - of four types|
3. Pratyek bodhak
|Points towards noun objects.|
B. Tulna (Degree of Comparison)
There are three stages of comparison in Hindi Visheshan.
- Mula vastha (Positive degree)
- Uttara vastha (Comparative degree)
- Uttama vastha (Superlative degree)
Kriya (Verb In Hindi Grammar)
A. Kinds of Verbs
- Sakarmak Kriya (Transitive Verb) - These cause direct effect on another person/object. These are of two types-
- Preranarthak Kriya (Causative Verb)
- Dwikarmak Kriya (Verbs with two objects)
- Akarmak Kriya (Intransitive Verb) - Have no effect on others.
B. Kaal (Tense)
|Bhoot Kal (Past tense) -6 Types||Vartman Kal(Present tense) -3 Types||Bhavishya kal (Future tense) -2 Types|
|1. Samanya Bhoot(Past Indefinite)|
2. Aasann Bhoot(Past Imminent)
3. Apurn Bhoot(Past Continuous)
4. Purna Bhoot(Past Perfect)
5. Sandigdh Bhoot(Past Doubtful)
6. Hetuhetumad Bhoot(Past Conditional)
|1. Samanya Vartman (Present Indefinite)|
2. Apurn Vartman(Present Continuous)
3. Sandigdh Vartman (Present Doubtful)
|1. Samanya Bhavishya (Future Indefinite)|
2. Sambhabya Bhavishya (Future Conditional or Doubtful)
C. Vachya (Voice)
These are of three types -
- Kartri Vachya (Active Voice)
- Karm Vachya (Passive Voice)
- Bhav Vachya (Impersonal Voice)
Kriya Visheshan (Adverb In Hindi Grammar)
These are of four types -
- Kaal Vachak (Time) - e.g. abhi(now), tabhi(then), sada(always), pratidin(daily), Aaj(today), phir(again), pahle(previous)
- Sthan Vachak (Place) - e.g. yeha(here), veha(there), kenha(where), kidhar(which place), sab jagah(every-where), bahar(outside)
- Reet Vachak (Manner) - e.g. dhire(slow), tej(fast), shayad(perhaps), avashya(sure, definite), achanak(suddenly), theek(right)
- Pariman Vachak (Quantity) - e.g. kafee(enough), bahut(many), paryapt(sufficient), kuchh(few), adhik(more), kum(less)
Sambandh-bodhak (Preposition In Hindi Grammar)
These words relate noun/pronoun to other words in a sentence. Some examples are:
- Tom ke sar par topi hai. (Tom has hat on his head)
- Tom ke peechhe John hai. (John is behind Tom)
- Lily ke samne kutta hai. (Dog is in front of Lily)
- Lily ke age kutta hai. (Dog is before Lily)
Underlined words are sambandh-bodhak or preposition Hindi words.
Sammuchay-bodhak (Conjunction In Hindi Grammar)
These are used to join words, phrase or sentences. Their types and some examples are given below:
- Yojak (Additive) such as aur, tatha, evam
e.g. Badal aye aur versa hone lagi. (Clouds came and it started raining)
- Vikalp-soochak (Shows Alternative) such as ya, athava, ya-ya, na to, na ki
e.g. Versa hogi athava aandhi ayegi. (Either it will rain or there will be a storm)
- Vibhajak (Dis-joint) such as parantu, kintu, magar, lekin, taki, ki
e.g. Mae uske ghar gaya parntu vah nahi mila. (I went to his house but he did not meet)
- Parinaam-soochak (Shows Result)
e.g. Maen mehnat kiya isliye mae safal hua. (I worked hard hence I became successful)
- Karan-soochak (Shows Reason)
e.g. mae nahi sounga kyonki yeha par machhar hai. (I will not sleep because there are mosquitoes here.)
- Uddeshya-soochak (Shows motive)
e.g. Tej chalo taki hum station theek samay par pahoonch jaye. (Walk fast so that we reach station in time)
Vismayaadi-bodhak (Interjection In Hindi Grammar)
Some words that show various moods are:
|Hersh (Happiness)||Ahaa!, Aahaa!, Wah!, Wah-wah!|
|Shok (Sadness)||Haay!, Aah!, Oh!, Uff!, Afsos!|
|Vismay (Surprise)||Arre!, Kya!, Sach!, Baap Re!, Hain!|
|Krodh (Anger)||Hut!, Chal!, Dur Ho!, Abe!, Kyon!|
|Tirskaar (Condemn)||Chhih!, Dhikkaar!, Dhat!|
|Vedana (Pain)||Haay Re!, Baap Re!, Haay Mar Gaya!|
|Prashansa (Praise)||Waah!, Dhanya!, Khoob!, BahutAchchhe!|
|Sweekriti (Consent)||Achcha!, Theek!, Bahut Achchha!|
English equivalents shown here on this Hindi grammar page are only to convey meaning of words written in Hindi. They may not be exact translation.